Phyllanthus amarus Schum. &Thonn.
Phyllanthus amarus subsp. amarus., Phyllanthus nanus Hook.f. Phyllanthus niruri var.amarus (Schumach. & Thonn.) Leandri , Phyllanthus scabrellus Webb.
English : Country gooseberry, Hindi : Bhui Amala, Sanskrit :Mahidhatrika, Bhumyamalaki, Bahuphala, Punjabi : Lodhar, Assamese :Bhuin Amla, Bengali :Bhumamla, Bhumi amalaki, Gujrati :Bhoi Amali, Bhonyamari, Bhonyamali, Kannada :Nelanelli, Kashmiri : Kath, Malayalam :Kizanelli, Keezhanelli, Ajjhada, Marathi :Bhuiawali, Oriya :Bhuin Amla, Tamil :Kizhukainelli, Kizanelli, Telugu :Nelausirika
Bhui amla is an annual herb, 20-60 cm height. It is found in Central and Southern India extending to Ceylon. In India it is found in Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nandu, Maharastra and Sikkim. Root are small, 2.5-11.0 cm long, nearly straight, gradually tapering. Stems are cylindrical, 20-75 cm long, light brown branching profuse towards upper region bearing 5-10 pairs of leaves, internode, 1-3.5 cm long, odour, indistinct, taste, slightly bitter. Leaf and leaf-let arranged in two rows with a rachis, alternate, opposite and decussate almost sessile, stipulate, oblong, entire, upto 1.5 cm long and 0.5 cm wide, greenish brown in colour. Flowers axillary, proximal 2-3 axils with unisexual 1-3 male flowers and all succeeding axils with bisexual cymules. Male flowers -pedicel 1 mm long, calyx 5, oblong, elliptic, apex acute, hyaline with unbranched mid rib; disc segments 5, rounded, stamens 3, filaments connate. Female flowers-pedicel 0.8-1.0 mm long, calyx lobes 5, lobes often toothed at apex, styles 3, free, shallowly bifid at apex.
The main constituents of tamalaki is Phyllanthine & Hypophyllanthine. Other constituents are alkaloids, lignans, amarin, gernanin, corilagin, rutin and flavonoids (quercetin,catechin).
Rasa :Madhura, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna :Laghu, Ruksa, Vipaka : Madhura, Virya :Sita, Karma : Mutrala, Rocana, Dahanasani, Pittasamaka.
Kasa, Ksaya, Kustha, Pandu, Prameha, Trsa, Ksata, Mutraroga,Amlapitta.
The whole plant of Bhuiamla is used to treat jaundice, chronic dysentery, leucorrhoea, dyspepsia, Bronchitis, Bronchial asthma, cough, fever, flu, viral hepatitis, indigestion, diabetes, urinary tract diseases, gonorrhoea and diseases of urinogenital system, skin diseases, ulcer, sores, pain and swelling.