Coriandrum sativum L.
Bifora loureiroi Kostel., Coriandropsis syriaca H.Wolff, Coriandrum globosum Salisb., Coriandrum majus Gouan, Coriandrum sativum var. afghanicum Stolet., Coriandrum sativum var. africanum Stolet., Coriandrum sativum subsp. indicum Stolet., Coriandrum sativum var. microcarpum DC., Coriandrum sativum var. pygmaeum Stolet., Selinum coriandrum Krause.
English : Coriander fruit, Hindi : Dhaniya, Sanskrit : Dhanika, Dhanya, Vitunnaka, Kustumburu, Urdu : Kishneez, Punjabi : Dhania, Assamese : Dhaniya, Bengali : Dhane, Dhania, Gujrati : Dhana, Kannada : Havija, Kothambaribija, Kashmiri :Dhaniwal, Dhanawal, Malayalam : Malli, Kothampatayari, Marathi : Dhane, Kothimbir, Oriya : Dhania, Tamil : Kottamatlivirai, Dhaniya, Telugu : Dhaniyalu
Dried ripe fruit.
This species is native to Mediterranean regions, found wild in Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Europe, North Africa, South America, Thailand, Malaysia China and all over India. It is cultivated as a subsidiary crop in the black soils of Deccan and South India and in the rich silt loams of North India. It is a annual herb, 30-90 cm high. Dried ripe fruits is a slender, glabrous, branched, mericarps usually united by their margins forming a cremocarp about 2-4 mm in diameter, uniformly brownish-yellow or brown, glabrous, sometimes crowned by the remains of sepals and styles, primary ridges 10, wavy and slightly inconspicuous secondary ridges 8, straight, and more prominent, endosperm oelospermous, odour, aromatic, taste spicy and characteristic.
The main chemical constituents of Dhania is Essential oil (coriandrol). It also contains moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates and minerals. The minerals this herb is rich in are iron, calcium, phosphorus, carotene, thiamine, niacin, Vitamin C and riboflavin. The seed also contains linalool (37.7%), geranyl acetate (17.6%) and γ-terpinene (14.4%).
Rasa : Madhura, Katu, Tikta, Kasaya, Guna : Laghu, Snigdha, Vipaka : Madhura, Virya : Usna, Karma : Caksusya, Dipana, Grahi, Hrdya, Mutrala, Pacana, Tridosanut.
Atisara, Ajirna, Chardi, Daha, Jvara, Trasna.
It is used in treating disorders like diabetes, increased cholesterol, arteries blockage leading to high blood pressure, urinary tract problems, anxiety, improving brain functions, fungal infections, anemia, typhoid fever, skin Problems, swelling, burning sensation, osteoporosis, Arthritis, liver diseases, digestive problems-including vomiting peristaltic movements, abdominal pain, diarrhea and colon ulcers.